Introduction of Roadways or Highways | Classification of Roads3 min read

Roadways or Highways:

The major road of transportation is achieved by highway & expressway.

Road transport is mostly used mode of transportation. Transport by road is the only mode which can provide maximum service to all. This mode also has maximum flexibility for travel through any mode of road vehicle related to route, direction, time and speed of travel, etc. Door-to-door service can be provided only by road transport.

The planning, design, construction, and maintenance of road and roadway facilities’ needs of road traffic are covered under Highway Engineering.

Characteristics of Road Transport:

(i) Roads can accommodate various types of vehicles at a time, like passenger cars, trucks, pedal cycles, and animal-drawn vehicles.
(ii) Road transport requires relatively low capital investment for the government.
(iii) Road transport offers complete freedom to road users to transfer the vehicle from one lane to another and from one road to another according to the need and convenience.
(iv) In particular for short-distance travels, road transport saves time.
(v) Road transport is the only mode of transport that provides uniformity to the entire community.

Importance of Roads in India:

Road development in India has contributed greatly to the growth in the agricultural, commercial and industrial sectors. It is necessary to provide road connectivity between villages and market centers.

Overall economic progress can be achieved only when adequate transport facilities are made available between villages and commercial centers. Road development also creates a lot of employment opportunities.

The revenue from road transport in India has been much higher than the investment made on road development plans.

Classification of Rural Roads:

The roads are classified based on:

1. Traffic volume:

(a) Heavy
(b) Medium
(c) Light

2 Load Transport:

(a) Class A
(b) Class B etc.

3. Nagpur road plan classified roads into 5 categories based on location and function:

(a) National Highway
(b) State Highway
(c) Major District Roads
(d) Other District Roads
(e) Village Roads

Classification of Urban Roads:

The urban roads are classified as:

1. Arterial road
2. Collector streets
3. Expressways
4. Sub arterial roads
5. Local streets

Scope of Highway Engineering:

Highway engineering deals with the following general elements:

(i) Planning and Location
(ii) Alignment selection and Geometric design
(iii) Pavement design
(iv) Materials, Construction, and Maintenance
(U) Traffic operations and its control
(w) Economics, Finance, and Administration
(vii) Environmental and Social aspects

Scope of Highway Engineering
Development Planning and Location Historical background: Basis for Planning: Master Plan;
Engineering surveys and highway alignment.
Highway Design, Geometrics, and Structures Road Geometrics and their Design: Rigid and Flexible Pavements; Design factors and thickness design: Overlay design, Design of drainage system.
Traffic Performance and its Control Traffic studies analysis: Need for new road links: Traffic
regulation and control: Intersection design and their
controls with signs, signals, islands, and markings.
Materials, Construction, and Maintenance Highway Materials and mix design: Highway construction; Earthwork, construction of different types of pavements: Earthen, soil stabilized, water-bound macadam, bituminous surfaces, and cement concrete roads; pavement failures: pavement evaluation, maintenance of pavements and drainage system.
Economics, Finance, and Administration Road user cost and economic analysis of highway projects: pavement types and maintenance measures; Highway Finance and phasing of expenditures; Administration.

Difference Between Highway Engg. and Transportation Engg.


Transportation Engineering is a subgroup of Civil Engineering that deals with the design, analyze and execution of road works. it deals with all kinds of roads including village road to hilly area road.

Highway engineering is a subgroup of transportation engineering with all kinds of transportation ways like railways, roadways, and waterways.

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