Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge | Every Civil Engineering Must Know3 min read

Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge:

I will discuss civil engineering basic knowledge. this knowledge is very important for every civil engineering student. if they are working on construction site if they are studying even if they are free so you should learn about the basic knowledge.

Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge

#1. Grade Of Concrete

Grade Of Concrete

Mix Ratio 

C : S : A

M7.5 1:4:8
M10 1:3:6
M15 1:2:4
M20 1:1.5:3
M25 1:1:2

#2. Unit Weight of Civil Engineering Materials

Materials Unit Weight (kg/m³)
Cement 1440
P.C.C 2400
R.C.C 2500
Cement Plaster 2000
Bitumen 1340
Glass 2500
Water 1000

#3. Standard Conversion Factor

1 Meter 3.28 feet
1 Meter 39.37 inches
1 Meter 100 cm
1 Meter 1000 mm
1 Foot 12 inches
1 Inch 2.54 cm
1 Inch 8 soot

#4. Clear Cover For Different R.C.C Members

Member Clear Cover
Foundation 75 mm
Raft Foundation  Top= 50mm

Bottom= 75mm

Sides= 75mm

Strap beam 50mm
Beam 25mm
Column 40mm
Flat Slab 20mm
Slab 15mm

#5. Unit Weight Of Steel per Meters

Diameter of Steel Weight  kg/m
6mm 0.222
8mm 0.395
10mm 0.616
12mm 0.888
16mm 1.578
20mm 2.466
25mm 3.853

#6. Basic Area Units

1 Kanal 20 Marla
1 Marla 272.24 sq. ft.
1 Kanal 502 meter square
1 Marla 25.10 square meter
1 Hectare 10000 sq. m
1 Acre 43560 sq. ft.

#7. Curing of Types of Cement

1. For O.P.C ( ordinary portland cement ) 7 Days
2. super sulphate cement 10 Days
3. cement with mineral & admixture 14 Days

#8. Grade of Steel

Tensile Strength 

1. Mild Steel Fe 250 250 N/mm²
2. HYSD ( high yield strength deformed bars ) Fe 415 415 N/mm²
Fe 500 500 N/mm²
3. TMT Bars ( Thermo mechanically treated bars ) Fe 415 415 N/mm²
Fe 500 500 N/mm²
Fe 550 550 N/mm²

#9. Setting Time of Cement

Types of Cement Initial Setting Time Final Setting Time
O.P.C ( ordinary portland cement) 30 minutes 600 minutes
Portland blast-furnace cement 30 minutes 600 minutes
RHC ( rapid hardening cement) 30 minutes 600 minutes
LHC ( low heat cement ) 60 minutes 600 minutes

#10. Grade of OPC ( ordinary portland cement )

33 Grade 33 N/mm²
43 Grade  43 N/mm²
53 Grade 53 N/mm²

#11. Crushing Strength of Bricks

Types of Brick Crushing Strength
First Class Brick 105 kg/mm²
2nd Class Brick 70 kg/mm²
3rd Class Brick 35 kg/mm²

#12. Water Absorption of Brick

1st Class Brick <less than 15% by weight
2nd Class Brick < less than 20% by weight
3rd Class Brick > greater than 22% by weight

#13. Water Absorption Of Building Stone

  • Water absorption of building stone is not greater than 5% by weight.

 

 

FAQ or Short Notes:

  1. The weight of 1 bag of cement is 50 kgs.
  2. The density of cement is 1440 kgs/m³
  3. The minimum thickness of the slab should be a minimum of 0.125 meters are 125 millimeters
  4. The fourth one is c/c means central to central distance. so c/c especially we are using in steel structure design for the slab or for any RCC members we can say spacing between two steel rods.
  5. The thickness of DPC dam-proof cores should not be less than 2.5 centimeters or 1 inch.
  6. DL means development length. development length is which makes a good bond between steel and concrete.
  7. The slope of the stair should be between 25 to 40 angles. the riser and stair in between 150 to 200. the trade should be 250 to 300 mm. the vertical portion of the stair is rising.
  8. 550 numbers bricks are required in a one-meter cube.
  9. M20 grid concrete is generally used in the construction of slabs. so what is m20 grade concrete m20 means the M20 ratio is 1:1.5:3
  10. Unit weight of steel the formula is D²/162 in kg/m. for example, am using the dia this is steel rod okay which dia is 12 millimeters okay so the formula will be 12*12/162 = 0.88 kg/m
  11. Lapping should not be provided for the dia more than 36 mm.
  12. The maximum free fall height of concrete should not be more than 1.5 meters so the max very far should not be more than 1.5 meters otherwise it will make bleeding, segregation, etc.
  13. The compressive strength of brick is 7.5 N/mm²
  14. The number of bars = length of the opposite side divided by spacing c/c plus 1. then you can find the total numbers of steel rods.
  15. Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.
  16. The minimum bars used for a square column are 4 No’s and 6 No’s for the circular column.
  17. The curing time for concrete members is 7 to 10 days.

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