I will discuss civil engineering basic knowledge. this knowledge is very important for every civil engineering student. if they are working on construction site if they are studying even if they are free so you should learn about the basic knowledge.
#1. Grade Of Concrete
Grade Of Concrete
C : S : A
#2. Unit Weight of Civil Engineering Materials
Unit Weight (kg/m³)
#3. Standard Conversion Factor
#4. Clear Cover For Different R.C.C Members
#5. Unit Weight Of Steel per Meters
Diameter of Steel
#6. Basic Area Units
272.24 sq. ft.
502 meter square
25.10 square meter
10000 sq. m
43560 sq. ft.
#7. Curing of Types of Cement
1. For O.P.C ( ordinary portland cement )
2. super sulphate cement
3. cement with mineral & admixture
#8. Grade of Steel
1. Mild Steel
2. HYSD ( high yield strength deformed bars )
3. TMT Bars ( Thermo mechanically treated bars )
#9. Setting Time of Cement
Types of Cement
Initial Setting Time
Final Setting Time
O.P.C ( ordinary portland cement)
Portland blast-furnace cement
RHC ( rapid hardening cement)
LHC ( low heat cement )
#10. Grade of OPC ( ordinary portland cement )
#11. Crushing Strength of Bricks
Types of Brick
First Class Brick
2nd Class Brick
3rd Class Brick
#12. Water Absorption of Brick
1st Class Brick
<less than 15% by weight
2nd Class Brick
< less than 20% by weight
3rd Class Brick
> greater than 22% by weight
#13. Water Absorption Of Building Stone
Water absorption of building stone is not greater than 5% by weight.
FAQ or Short Notes:
The weight of 1 bag of cement is 50 kgs.
The density of cement is 1440 kgs/m³
The minimum thickness of the slab should be a minimum of 0.125 meters are 125 millimeters
The fourth one is c/c means central to central distance. so c/c especially we are using in steel structure design for the slab or for any RCC members we can say spacing between two steel rods.
The thickness of DPC dam-proof cores should not be less than 2.5 centimeters or 1 inch.
DL means development length. development length is which makes a good bond between steel and concrete.
The slope of the stair should be between 25 to 40 angles. the riser and stair in between 150 to 200. the trade should be 250 to 300 mm. the vertical portion of the stair is rising.
550 numbers bricks are required in a one-meter cube.
M20 grid concrete is generally used in the construction of slabs. so what is m20 grade concrete m20 means the M20 ratio is 1:1.5:3
Unit weight of steel the formula is D²/162 in kg/m. for example, am using the dia this is steel rod okay which dia is 12 millimeters okay so the formula will be 12*12/162 = 0.88 kg/m
Lapping should not be provided for the dia more than 36 mm.
The maximum free fall height of concrete should not be more than 1.5 meters so the max very far should not be more than 1.5 meters otherwise it will make bleeding, segregation, etc.
The compressive strength of brick is 7.5 N/mm²
The number of bars = length of the opposite side divided by spacing c/c plus 1. then you can find the total numbers of steel rods.
Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.
The minimum bars used for a square column are 4 No’s and 6 No’s for the circular column.
The curing time for concrete members is 7 to 10 days.